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Magic can be unpredictable and destructive when it runs wild. So, wizards have learned how to focus it with formulaic spells.
When casting a spell, roll Sortilege + the appropriate Art for the spell being cast. The difficulty of the roll is 4, plus the spell's required Art level. If other modifiers increase the difficulty above 10, then the difficulty remains at 10, but one extra success must be achieved per excess point.
As a standard spell, except that successes are accrued over a series of rolls until the spell is achieved, time runs out, or a roll botches. The time between rolls varies with the task.
Enchantment is when a spell has an ongoing effect, such as those imbued into artifacts. Such spells are difficult to cast, requiring ten times the usual successes. If successfully cast, the caster must spend two points of Willpower per level of the Art required in order to make the enchantment permanent. Otherwise, it will simply last for three times the usual duration and then fade.
Part of the formula for spells is a verbal incantation, which helps the wizard to focus and visualize the weaving of magic into a usable form. It is possible to cast a spell without the verbal component, this this requires a complete understanding of the spell and how it works. To cast a spell non-verbally, the wizard must have that spell mastered (i.e. the spell is on the wizard's spell list), and must have at least 3 dots in the appropriate Art. Furthermore, casting a spell non-verbally increases the difficulty by 2.
Casting spells without a wand is highly difficult, and generally the purview of only the mightiest wizards. To cast a spell without a wand, the wizard must spend a point of Willpower and the difficulty is increased by 3.
Note that there are some forms of magic that are inherently wandless, such as Apparition and Animagus transformation. These have no difficulty penalty or Willpower requirement for being performed without a wand.
The specific effects of magic vary from spell to spell. Some inflict harm, others might affect a target's actions, still others might be entirely cosmetic or even whimsical. Refer to the individual spell descriptions for details on what a spell can do, and what sort of system effects it might have. There are a few cases in which some common rules apply, described below.
Spells with the Harmful keyword inflict damage. Magical damage can be very difficult to heal, even with magical healing. Unless otherwise specified, the spell will inflict two levels of aggravated damage for each success that affects the target.
Most wizards will say that the best defense against a spell is to avoid being struck by it. Most spells must physically touch a target in order to affect it. Therefore, dodging is very important in magical combat.
A spellcasting roll is treated as an attack roll. Therefore, a character with an available action can attempt to dodge the attack as normal with a Dexterity + Athletics roll